Banned cluster bombs killing and maiming children in Aleppo
Friday, 21 October 2016
Aid workers and medical professionals in East Aleppo are reporting the widespread use of cluster bombs in recent months, weapons that are banned under International Humanitarian Law.
Despite ‘humanitarian pauses’ taking place in Aleppo today, concerns are mounting for the increased number of children already injured by explosive weaponry who may be too unwell to leave or untreatable in the existing medical facilities which have been battered in the recent bombardment.
A month on from the collapse of the ceasefire in East Aleppo, Save the Children is warning that it is primarily the deadly use of explosive weapons – including cluster bombs – which has led to more than 136 children being killed and 397 wounded since 23rd September.(1)
The Violations Documentation Centre, which documents human rights violations in Syria, recorded 137 cluster bomb attacks in Aleppo from 10th September to 10th October – a 791% increase on the average of the previous eight months. Across Syria, they report that 130 children have been killed due to cluster bombs in the past year. Syria Civil Defence (White Helmets) report that there were 163 cluster bomb attacks in Aleppo governorate during September.
Save the Children is not able to independently verify or confirm these figures and accurate data collection is currently very challenging in East Aleppo, but other sources on the ground report sustained used of cluster bombs since the ceasefire collapsed on September 18th.
Cluster bombs are dropped from the air or fired from the ground and scatter multiple submunitions, or ‘bomblets’ indiscriminately over a wide area – at least the size of a football pitch.
Often bomblets fail to explode on impact and are handled by curious children. According to Cluster Munitions Monitor(2), globally some 40 per cent of victims of cluster bombs are children, often injured or killed long after direct hostilities end.
The impact of cluster munitions on children’s bodies can be devastating. Surgeons say that at close range, a bomblet can tear off a child’s limbs, blind them or fracture bones. From further away, fragments or ball bearings will embed in the body, usually in the muscles.
The head of the Organisation for Removing Explosives and Remnants of War in East Aleppo, working under the pseudonym Firas for security reasons, said: “Not all the bomblets explode, and usually they look like a ball or something that a child would play with. They are mines waiting to explode at any moment, stuck on roofs and windows or lying in playgrounds and parks. There are many cases of amputations in Aleppo city because of this.”
Dr David Nott, a trauma surgeon who has worked in Syria and who advises surgeons in East Aleppo remotely, said: “Sometimes 20-30 ball bearings are coming at children, which tears off their arms and legs. The ones slightly away from where the bomb lands get them embedded all over their body – they mostly end up in the muscles.”
With only an estimated 35 medics left in East Aleppo, doctors only have the time and resources currently to treat the most critical patients whose injuries are life threatening, so fragments such as ball bearings are reportedly often being left in children.
Dr Nott added: “There’s no time to take them out right now in East Aleppo, the doctors have to make rational decisions. But leaving them in can result in massive infection and sepsis.”
Save the Children supports global implementation of the 2008 Convention on Cluster Munitions, which comprehensively prohibits the use of these deadly weapons. However, cluster bombs have continued to be used to devastating effect in Syria. According to Human Rights Watch, cluster munition attacks in Syria have significantly increased since September 2015.
Sonia Khush from Save the Children said: “In Syria today, there are young children with freshly amputated limbs or with ball bearings embedded in their muscle tissue because of the use of these appalling and indiscriminate weapons. Cluster bombs and other explosive weapons with a wide-area impact have no place in any conflict.
“International Humanitarian Law has been consistently violated during the conflict in Syria, from the bombing of schools and hospitals to indiscriminate attacks on civilians. We have to do more to protect children from the carnage of this war. If there is one thing the warring parties must agree on immediately, it should be to end the use of cluster munitions and to allow access to aid agencies so that we can evacuate injured children.
“There must also be accountability for what’s happening to them in Aleppo. Save the Children wants to see urgent investigations launched to establish the full scale of horrific attacks perpetrated in Aleppo and the indiscriminate attacks on civilian infrastructure."
In addition to calling for a halt to cluster munitions in any area and under any circumstance, Save the Children is also pushing for an end to the use of explosive weapons in populated areas because of the civilian harm this practice causes.
(1) Figures are taken from the Aleppo Health Directorate from 23 Sep to 17 Oct. These figures are believed to be an underestimation of the actual child casualties as they only record the incidences of children who have presented at hospitals. Also note that it was not possible for the AHD to record figures daily.
Notes to editors
Case study, images and audio available here: http://storycentral.savethechildren.org.uk/?c=40881&k=66f38f9fa4
According to the Violations Documentation Centre, there were 123 cluster bomb attacks in Aleppo from 1st January 2016 – 10th September 2016, a rate of 15.3 a month. There were 137 attacks using cluster bombs from 10th September – 10th October.
Across the rest of Syria, they recorded 112 attack used cluster munitions from 1st January 2016 to 10th October 2016, 68 of which happened from September – October 10th. The VDC recorded 130 deaths due the cluster bombs in the last 12 months.
On 5 October, Germany as president of the Convention on Cluster Munitions condemned the continued cluster bomb attacks in Aleppo and other governorates of Syria. It called upon the Syrian government to refrain from the use of cluster munitions and to adhere to respective norms and obligations under international humanitarian law.